few, little, a few, a little

few, little, a few, a little

few, little, a few, a little

先看看few跟little使用上的差異,主要是所形容的對象是何種名詞
(記憶法:few的字數少於little,少到算得出來,多到無法計算)

few + 可數名詞(countable)
little + 不可數名詞(uncountable/mass)

範例 1:
There is still a little time left for the team to score an equalizer.(正確的句子)
There is still a few time left for the team to score an equalizer.(錯誤的句子)
由於time是屬於不可數名詞,所以必需使用little來形容time,本句的意思是「還剩下很少時間讓球隊扳平」

範例 2:
There were a few children in the playground.(遊樂場內只有數個小孩)

再來看看有加冠詞a跟沒有冠詞a的差異
(記憶法:a few比few多一個字a,當然就多一些些囉.少到一直被否定,多到大家都肯定)

a few / a little – 具有肯定的含義,還有一些的意思,勉強夠用(positive)
few / little – 為否定含義,剩沒多少,根本不夠用(negative)

範例 1:
I have a little money, enough for a hamburger.(我有一點點錢,吃一個漢堡包還可以)
I have little money, not enough for a hamburger.(我只有很少錢,連吃一個漢堡包也不夠)

範例 2:(a little只是說明數量較少,而little則強調數量少得可憐,少到不符人們的期望)
A little progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得一點點進展)此句尚算是正面的評價.
Little progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得極少進展)此句則是負面評價囉.

範例 3:
A few visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(數個訪客獲准進入國會大樓)
Few visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(甚少訪客獲准進入國會大樓)

範例 4:
I have a little wine.(我有一些紅酒)意思是所擁有的紅酒還夠請人喝.
I have little wine.(我有一點紅酒)意思是自己喝都不夠了.

一般來說,在little或few前面加上a,只會用在書寫上使用,較少用於口語上,因為有可能會造成誤會.
所以口語上會改用另一組字來表達「少得可憐」的涵意,就是hardly any 和not much/not many。
Hardly any (Not much/Little) progress was made on the peace talk.(和談取得極少進展)
Hardly any (Not many/Few) visitors were allowed to enter the parliament building.(甚少訪客獲准進入國會大樓)

練習題:
1.Do you want water?There is _____left in my glass.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

2.There are a lot of new books,But____of them are easy to read.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

3.Please hurry up,There is _____ time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

4.The box is very heavy,____of us can lift it.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

5.Don’t worry,we still have____time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

6.There are____books left,We can’t lend you any one.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

7.Li Ping has learned Russian for four years,and he can speak______Russian now.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

8.There is _____ink in my pen,Please give me______
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

9.Give me another cup of tea please,There is ____in this cup.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

10.Don’t rush,There is still_____time left.
A.few B.a few C.little D.a little

標準答案:請看意見

可數名詞及不可數名詞的基本分辨方法:

方法一:
先將這個名詞所表示的東西分兩半,若分兩半後不能再叫原來的名稱時,可判斷為可數名詞.
但若分兩半後還可以叫原來的名稱時,則判定為不可數名詞.
如:
chair椅子: 分兩半後,這個椅子就壞了,不再具有原本椅子的功能了,因此我們判定它為可數名詞.
meat肉: 分兩半後,它還是肉啊,也還可以吃,所以我們判定它為不可數名詞. ( a piece of meat )

方法二:
不可數名詞沒有所謂的單數或複數形式,也就是說你很少會看到一個結尾是s的不可數名詞.
你也不會看到有個不定冠詞,a/an用在一個不可數名詞上.
如:
There is dirt on the floor.(地板上有泥土)
There is sand in your hair.(你的頭髮裏有沙子)

sand或許你曾看過有人寫sands但sands指的是沙攤或沙漠,意思上已改變了,其它的還有waters水域,winds大風,woods森木,times時代…etc.

a cake of soap 一塊肥皂
a bit of news 一件消息
a drop of oil 一滴油
a grain of sand 一粒沙
a pane of glass 一塊玻璃
a piece of advice 一條忠告
a pot of jam 一罐果醬
a sheet of paper 一頁紙

參考資料:
http://paper.wenweipo.com/2008/04/08/ED0804080010.htm
http://xueke.edudown.net/Article/gaozhong/yuwen/200609/648.html
http://www.ecp.com.cn/cc/x6/nwwd/20070406085730.htm
http://www.languageguide.org/english/grammar/cn/part2/non_count.jsp
http://www.slideshare.net/helenyan2002/g3

張貼者: 史丹利 於 下午2:14

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